Whiskey Rebels

It’s hopping here at the U on a Sunday. I guess it’s that time in the semester when the undergrads are starting to collect their sources for senior thesis projects. I think I’m still getting used to the ebb and flow of when the busy times are here,  but there’s so many programs, Master’s, PHD, traditional undergrad, and adult programs are all on different schedules.

I just literally spent over an hour trying to help a kinesiology student find studies about preoperative rehabilitation’s effects on postoperative outcomes of ACL surgery. Even after an hour we were only up to 4 solid ones. Sometimes people are looking for only a very specific type of article like there’s going to be a plethora of articles written on exactly what they want, and it’s just not the case. You have to pull your subject apart, look for other angles at some point.  It also makes me question my role sometimes as a research librarian at times. So you need a list of 15 articles, I can give you tips and pointers of where to look, how to look, and help with keywords, but I can’t produce a list of exactly the number of articles you need and hand it to you. It’s just not reality. I do love to help, and provide information, but there does come a point where I can’t do much more and the digging must be done by the student. The point of the educational process is for the student to research, and I get that, but also these topics can be frustrating, and you don’t want to turn people away without an information need filled. AH it’s a struggle. Maybe it’s also a pride thing, like dang, if I can’t find X amount of articles on the topic then maybe there’s something wrong with my searching skills. I don’t think so, but….

I digress.

So I got my numbers today, 2, 6, 19, Right. This led me straight to the substance abuse section. Yay! Who doesn’t love a good book about addiction, and more specifically so about a major poison of choice that I know all too well, Alcohol!

Today I pulled the book: Drink: A Social History of America by Andrew Barr.

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Flipped open to a random paragraph and here we go:

The impossibility of incorporating the Scotch-Irish notion of “natural liberty” within the federal system was demonstrated when, at the instigation of Alexander Hamilton, the secretary of the treasury, Congress voted in 1791 to impose an excise duty on domestically produced spirits. The following year a group of western Pennsylvanians petitioned to congress to repeal the tax. “To us,” they argued, “that act appears unequal in its operation and immoral in its effects. Unequal in its operation, as a duty laid on the common drink of a nation, instead of taxing the citizens in proportion to their property, falls as heavy on the poorest class as on the rich; immoral in its effect, because the amount of duty resting on the oath of the prayer, offers, at the expense of the honest part of the community, a premium to perjury and fraud.” (Barr, 1999, p.320)

In what could have appeared to be a somewhat exciting book (based on the cover and topic) I have managed to pick one of the most boring paragraphs in it. I get it, putting an excise tax on spirits would make it harder for the average man to get his booze on than a man of higher means. Booze, as referred to here is called the “common drink of a nation” both rich man and poor man have spent nights way longer than they should belly up at the bar with no regard to tomorrow, but man tomorrow when it does come also rewards both rich and poor the same way, with a hangover. If we must find something in common then, let it be our love of booze. That kind of makes me laugh a bit.

What I don’t know about is this instigation of Hamilton in 1791. (I do wonder if I would have seen the musical if I would know more, but something tells me probably not). It appears that Mr. Hamilton suggested this excise tax on spirits to congress, and it passed.

This was something called the 1791 Excise Whiskey Tax. Here’s the info from the historical site of the House of Representatives:

After a spirited debate, the House passed, by a 35 to 21 majority, the Excise Whiskey Tax—legislation that proved wildly unpopular with farmers and eventually precipitated the “Whiskey Rebellion.” The measure levied a federal tax on domestic and imported alcohol, earmarked to offset a portion of the federal government’s recent assumption of state debts. Southern and western farmers, whose grain crop was a chief ingredient in whiskey, loudly protested the tax. In 1794, farmers in western Pennsylvania attacked federal officials seeking to collect tax on the grain they had distilled into whiskey. The administration of President George Washington dispatched a force of nearly 13,000 militia to put down a feared revolt. Resistance, however, dissipated when the troops arrived. (The 1791 Excise Whiskey Tax, 2017.)

I see now how this caused a ripple effect in society down to the farmers who produced the grain to go into the Whiskey. The “Whisky Rebellion” sounds like something I do to myself when I go out and have a couple stiff ones and think I can rebel against bedtime and the fact that I have work the next day. Now I have to chase the rebellion, see what that’s all about, and see if they got any farther than the farmers who backed down against the militia, or if that’ is just part of the rebellion.

It looks like that last part with the people backing down was only the second part of the story.

Enforcement legislation touched off what appeared to be an organized rebellion, and in July of 1794 about 500 armed men attacked and burned the home of the regional tax inspector after a smaller group had been fended off the previous day. The following month Pres. George Washington issued a congressionally authorized proclamation ordering the rebels to return home and calling for militia from Pennsylvania and three neighbouring states. After fruitless negotiations with the 15-member committee representing the rebels Washington ordered some 13,000 troops into the area, but the opposition melted away and no battle ensued. Troops occupied the region and some of the rebels were tried, but the two convicted of treason were later pardoned by the president. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017).

What was really important historically here I suppose is that the American government squashed the rebellion. But it could also go to show you, don’t mess with people’s booze and their god given right to drink it. Anyhow, our country really isn’t that old when you think about it, and the fact that this only happened 226 years ago kind of puts that into perspective. I was hoping that drunk history had done this as a skit so I could link it, but I couldn’t find it so maybe that could be for another episode.

If you are interested in reading more about the Whiskey Rebellion and all those involved, I did find this in my diggings. I would read it myself if my list weren’t 1,435 books long.

The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty.  By William Hogeland

The publisher describes it as: “A gripping and sensational tale of violence, alcohol, and taxes, The Whiskey Rebellion uncovers the radical eighteenth-century people’s movement, long ignored by historians, that contributed decisively to the establishment of federal authority”

Until next time… have a glass of Whiskey for these brave rebels, who ultimately failed. But hey, at least they tried.

 

 

Barr, M. (1999). Drink: A Social History of America. New York, NY; Carroll & Graff Publishers, Inc.

The 1791 Excise Whiskey Tax. (2017). Retrieved from: http://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight/Detail/35785

Whiskey Rebellion. (2017). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://0-academic.eb.com.leopac.ulv.edu/levels/collegiate/article/Whiskey-Rebellion/76786

 

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4.6 Billion Years Ago..

My random numbers today were 3, 8, 12 and direction R. It’s usually floor 3 or 1, which is fine, because that is where most of our stacks are.  I’m always kind of silently hoping somebody will send me to 4 since that is we have all of our old periodicals, and those are really fun. So it’s up the stairs over and around and I find myself smack dab in the middle of… Brace yourselves… The geology section?

I’m starting to realize more and more as I do this that I actually know very little about many things. But I guess that is why we have libraries, and available information. There were so many small pamphlets and reports, I did see a title called Geology for non-geologists (which in retrospect I should have grabbed) but something else ultimately caught my eye.

Today I have picked: Meditations at 10,000 Feet: A Scientist in the Mountains. By James S. Trefil.

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Yes, I picked it solely because it had the word meditation in the title, although I think it’s used in a different way than I thought it would be. I did my random flip through and landed on this passage:

All the other radiometric dating techniques follow the same principle, although they don’t all use exactly the same logical sequence to arrive at an answer. All, however, share certain limitations. In the first place, it is essential to the accuracy of the method that none of the product nuclei escape. Argon, as we have noted, is a gas, so if a rock is heated in the normal course of the geological cycle, some of the argon may be driven off. In effect, such an event resets the geological clock. When the rock is analyzed, the date determined by the radiometric techniques will be that of the heating even, not the formation of the rock. Sometimes this problem can be dealt with by analyzing an entire rock rather than just certain minerals in it, since the decay nuclei may well be in the rock even when they’re no longer locked into the mineral structure. This sort of error leads to an age that is too small; it always underestimates the true age. (Trefil, 1986, p.109)

So he’s discussing one of the pitfalls of radiometric dating for rocks? I think? I have no idea what radiometric dating consists of, I have a feeling it has changed since 1986, but let’s look shall we?

Radiometric dating became a possibility with Becquerel’s discovery in 1896 of natural radioactivity. Rutherford postulated that radioactivity could be used to determine the age of the Earth. His and Soddy’s discovery (1902) of the transmutation of the atom became the basis for understanding exponential decay and the evolution of decay products (“daughter” elements). Age estimates for the Earth that had been determined by rate of heat loss (Lord Kelvin) now had to make allowances for the heat energy associated with radioactive decay. Thus, scholars were able to argue for great antiquity of the rocks on Earth. It was really with the advent of data collection technologies after World War II that the radiometric dating field began to develop with rapidity.

Radiometric dating must be viewed as having two forms: (1) techniques that rely on the decay of an isotope of an element, the production and decay of daughter decay products (radiocarbon dating, potassium-argon, argon-argon, and uranium-lead, uranium series) and (2) the techniques that rely on the crystal damage that is generated by the ionizing radiation generated by the decay of radioactive elements (thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, and fission track) (Pavish, 2006.)

So without the big words, it’s a fancy way of telling how old the rocks on the earth are by the amount of the decay of the elements inside that rock. I’m going to assume the excerpt is talking about argon-argon series of dating, but I really can’t be sure really.

So why is it important to date the rocks on the earth? Does it matter how long we have been around? (I mean not US, but the actual floating sphere in space that we reside on) Sure it does. Well I think it does, but for me I see this post as something more philosophical than scientific because, well I guess I’m just more right brained. I did a quick google search “Why do we need to know how old the earth is?” and really all I’m getting is How do we know how old the earth is? I went through about 10 pages of this and saw no why.

I guess maybe it’s implied that more knowledge is better. To figure things out scientifically is what makes us advanced as humans. There is an innate need to figure out the world and universe around us and how it works. The two most famous ways are faith and science, and by nature seem to conflict. What’s funny is as I’m sifting through the basic google results a lot of biblical stuff is coming up. Maybe the purpose of radiometric dating is to scientifically refute the bible, or at least point out the loopholes in its plots. I’m also seeing a lot of weird political stuff out there too. Man the internet really is full of lots and lots of opinions.

I’m going to assume most of the literature published on the subject of radiometric dating may use lots of jargon and ideas that may be a bit over my head and would take far too long to decipher and explain than we have in our short period of time here. A quick easy search of “radiometric dating” AND accuracy AND rocks actually only afforded me one hit, the Funk & Wagnall’s New World Encyclopedia, this should be more readable, oh and it gives a general reason too. That’s good.

Dating Methods, in earth science, methods used to date the age of rocks and minerals. By applying this information, geologists are able to decipher the 4.6-billion-year history of the earth. The events of the geologic past—uplift of mountain ranges, opening and closing of seas, flooding of continental interiors, changes in climate—are all recorded in the strata of the earth’s crust (Funk & Wagnall’s, 2016).

Scientific dating methods prove that the rocks and minerals found on the earth range back to 4.6 billion years ago. They can also track geological events such as flooding, mountain range shifts and climate changes. This is important. It’s nice to be able to track a history of something, and I see how it’s beneficial for the future to know these things.  I can’t help but think of how different things have become today with all the awful stuff we do to the planet and it’s atmosphere and ecosystems with the products, waste and emissions we have as humans. I know that recycling has become big in the course of my life, that’s a step. Now public transport is gaining speed, as well as re-using things to reduce waste. I try as much as I can to reduce my footprint and I feel like many people are doing the same which is a great step too. I mean do you ever really think of where all your trash goes? What that looks like? The amount of square feet or acres of just pure trash that you throw out in your one little life? I often think of this when I’m cataloging DVDs. There’s a box, then plastic shrink-wrap, then a sticker, then like 5 pieces of paper for ads inside. (So much that’s doing so little).

According to Nat Geo:

Americans generated 251 million tons of trash in 2006, the most recent year for which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has data. Our per capita trash disposal rate was 4.6 pounds per person, per day. Sixty-five percent came from residences, while 35 percent came from schools and commercial locations such as hospitals and businesses. (National Geographic, 2017).

The EPA has it at about the same, give or take. Look at that jump from 1980 to 2000. I wonder what the deal is there. I want to say at LEAST we are kind of leveling off, it would be nice to see it go down, but taking population growth into consideration it doesn’t seem like we are spiraling.

statistic_id186256_us-municipal-solid-waste-generation-1960-2014

I can’t even fathom how long 4.6 billion years is, nobody can. But I think it’s safe to say that the earth is something that is much older and wiser than us as humans. So we better respect it. From scientific jargon, to philosophical ranting, to standing up for environmental causes. Another Sunday, another random library book.

Dating Methods. (2016). Funk & Wagnall’s New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1.

Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). U.S. municipal solid waste generation from 1960 to 2014 (in million tons). In Statista – The Statistics Portal. Retrieved February 12, 2017, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/186256/us-municipal-solid-waste-generation-since-1960/.

Kulpinski, D. (2017). Where does it all go? Retrieved from: http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/human-footprint/trash-talk.html

Pavlish, L. (2006). Dating techniques, radiometric. In H. J. Birx (Ed.), Encyclopedia of anthropology (Vol. 5, pp. 707-707). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412952453.n238

Study Room Blues

Today I’m left in tech for another hour, and I can’t do any more cataloging so… What left to do but blog really? I haven’t done a blog from the public sphere in while so here goes.

It’s been a zoo over here lately. A freaking zoo. I mean it always is, but even more so. It’s like one of those things where you ask yourself is there any way I could be any busier? Then somebody throws another ball into your juggling routine and you really are trying not to die, and still juggling and somehow not dying or dropping the balls but knowing it just a matter of time until you just can’t handle it anymore….

Who ever said libraries aren’t busy places? Two phone lines ringing constantly, a line of people wanting to make passport appointments, looking for books, etc. Trying to build new things and start new programs all being understaffed and stretching everybody so paper thin. It’s a lot, and mainly why I haven’t been blogging from here too often. Just no time, when I leave here I’m brain dead from constant question fielding.

One of the main questions we get often is about our study rooms. Like most libraries we have several quiet study rooms where people can come and reserve them for up to two hours per group per day. You can call and reserve them only a day in advance no sooner, and you can’t try to be cute and say you are just going to use another group member’s card and get more time. These freaking rooms book up like hotcakes. I work Monday morning right when we open and I literally answer about 4 messages and 10 calls only about study rooms, and that’s only in the first hour. There is never enough room or time and nobody can believe it when they just can’t get the reservation they want. It’s crazy. Some people get it, but some also don’t. I’ve had many a conversation that goes like this:

Them:

I would like to reserve a study room today please at 3:30-5:00 for 4 people

Me:

We don’t have anything open at that time, we have something from 2:30-3:30 if you want to come earlier, or openings again after 6.

Them:

Oh I’m looking for something from 3:30-5:00 for four people.

Me:

Yes I understand, we don’t have any room available at that time. Again, we do have some earlier and later as I mentioned but nothing from 3:30-5:00.

Them:

So you don’t have anything from 3:30 to 5:00.

Me:

We don’t have anything available at that time.

Them:

What about the Rowling room, is that open at 3:30?

Me:

We don’t have anything available at that time.

Them:

What about the big room, with the windows?

Me:

We don’t have anything available at that time.

Them:

(long pause) Oh, ok thank you then.

Me:

(Wanting to slam the phone down because I have to say the same thing over and over and we don’t have anything at that time! Stop wasting my time and your time and listen to the words that are coming out of my mouth, ahhhhhhhhhh)

You’re welcome have a nice day.

**Repeat multiple times a day**

Or you get those sneaky ones who think they can have extra time and that you can’t add numbers.

Them:

Ok give me the Rowling room from 5:30-8:00

Me:

It’s a two hour maximum, so I can do 5:30-7:30

Them:

Yes I want the whole time 5:30 to 8:00

Me:

Ok it’s a two hour max, so I can only book you until 7:30

Them:

I want the room until 8

Me:

It’s a two hour maximum so 7:30 is the latest

Them:

OH, sorry I was miscounting. Hahaha

Me:

(Smiles at them but knows that it’s not that hard to add 2 to 5 and get 7 and that this lady is up to no good)

Hahah it’s ok I have you in Rowling until 7:30.

I have tried thinking of things that could make this more efficient. Maybe an online reservation system? Charging for the rooms could deter people from wanting to use them? But I guess that’s not the point, we want people to come here, we want them to use resources, but we just don’t seem to have enough to go around staff wise or room wise these days. *insert long exasperated sigh*

 

Cabins and Woods

I wrote this the other day, it kind of just fell out of me. I liked it though, and wasn’t sure what to do with it, so I put it here. I’m sure we’ve all had those moments when we realize things were never what we thought they would be. Not in a bad way, but sometimes you have to dig deeper in life and see below what’s happening on the surface of things. I consider this an acquired skill, an art. Some people may be born with an amazing sense of self-realization. I think I’ve had to struggle a bit harder for my own. I don’t know if this is poetry, it doesn’t feel like it.  I think prose but I’m not sure, I just got recently introduced to the subject of prose so I’m not entirely sure.

Cabin in the Woods

The devil, I’m sure, is nothing more than a bearded man with tattoos. He can build things, like a gigantic log cabin in the woods. He may take you there some day, ask you to stay. You agree. As you pass through the exterior of the porch you start to see that the cabin has no flooring, only dirt. The water coming from the tap is brown and murky. There is no furnace, just a stack of old crates and some matches. He smiles at you, shrugs:

“Welcome home baby.”

(Well, you think. Maybe this isn’t so bad, just a bit chilly, not really well lit…)

The longer you live there the more you realize that there is no cabin at all. Just you sitting out in the woods. But even further still there are no woods, not a tree in sight, no forest animals.

(This is where it really gets weird folks)

The devil is actually you,

The landscape is only your fear,

And nobody lives in the non-cabin in the non-woods.

Not

Even

You.

 

Generationz

Super bowl Sundaaaaaayyyy!!! And here I am at the U doing some pre-research on generations X Y and Z. I must say I find this kind of stuff far more intriguing than the football machine, but to each their own. It’s a day to hang out with friends, crack open some beers, fire up a grill or dig around in some databases and encyclopedias!  Whatever floats your boat right? Whatever makes your hot dog stand?

I have a Business Comm class that comes in every semester for their library presentation, it goes pretty well, it’s a small group of adult learners. Usually we go over quickly the broad range of services in the library, then I address the different group topics to get them started on their projects. The instructor will let me know beforehand what they are doing, so I can dig around a bit before and know what I expect to find so it’s not a surprise or me struggling to find info in front of about 20 people. But here’s the good part again, I learn something! So now you will too.

Generations. What is a generation? Why do we have labels on generations? What is the purpose of this?

Well let’s see, what we can find. What is the definition of a generation?

Dictionary.com has many definitions

Noun

  1. The entire body of individuals born and living at about the same time
  2. The term of years, roughly 30 among human beings, accepted as the average period between the birth of parents and the birth of their offspring.
  3. A group of individuals, most of whom are the same approximate age, having similar ideas, problems, attitudes, etc.
  4. A group of individuals belonging to a specific category at the same time.
  5. A single step in natural descent, as of human beings, animals, or plants.
  6. A form, type, class, etc., of objects existing at the same time and having many similarities or developed from a common model or ancestor (often used in combination): a new generation of anticancer drugs.
  7. The offspring of a certain parent or couple, considered as a step in natural descent.

I kind of like #3 the best when speaking of generations in relation to a group of humans, which I am doing here.

What good is putting people into these groups? Well, it can help you define patterns, see natural progression of attitudes, views, social structures, wardrobes, music, art, economic trends, and the list could go on and on. For some people being a part of a generation could help them better understand their identity, why they have certain views, or what generally defines their age group as a whole. Where do these ideas come from? Do they clash?  YES. With each generation there are gaps and instances where they don’t see eye to eye. This has been happening ever since there has been people. You know the children are our future and all that jazz. Well they are, and where do the children get their beliefs and values from, partially from the generation before them. But really, think about the views your grandparents have (this would be two generations between), are yours similar? Maybe in some aspects, but I’m sure they can be radically different in others. Technology alone in the last couple of decades has been enough to re-wire our minds including our thought processes. So we could think of generations as being partially molded by their predecessors, partially by their environment and peers, but also determined by who people are as individuals and how they view and see the world around them.

Just by initial diggings I can see that there is some differences in opinion on when each generation begins and ends. Some places do it by a year count, but others do it by an approximation that include certain major events. I like the idea of it being a more fluid thing, an approximation based on events and changes in society. Let me see if I can put together something that has approximate years:

What are the primary generations today?

Currently, five generations make up our society. Each of those five generations has an active role in the marketplace. Depending on the specific workplace, the workforce includes four to five generations. Here are the birth years for each generation:

  • iGen, Gen Z or Centennials: Born 1996 and later
  • Millennials or Gen Y: Born 1977 to 1995
  • Generation X: Born 1965 to 1976
  • Baby Boomers: Born 1946 to 1964
  • Traditionalists or Silent Generation: Born 1945 and before

(Center for Generational Kinetics, 2017)

*From the Center for Generational Kinetics, which actually happens to be a pretty interesting site to check out if you have the time, it explains things pretty well. BUT they are more of a marketing firm that helps corporations understand generations and advertise to them more efficiently, which kind of makes me nervous source wise, but since this isn’t an actual paper I’ll allow it. They may have underlying agenda, something to keep in mind.*

Since I was semi-wary of that source I found another eBook in our collections entitled: Consumer Series: American Generations and How they Live. This seems to also be targeted towards business and marketing, but it’s a book, so I guess I feel a bit better about it. They listed the generations pretty similar to above expect they added a new one:

Recession Generation- After years of stability in the annual number of births, the Great Recession hit. The economic turmoil of the Great Recession caused young adults to postpone marriage and childbearing. The annual number of births fell below 4 million in 2010 as a new baby bust— the Recession Generation— began (Consumer Series, 2013).

They also split the Silent generation into two, the swing and the WWII generations, but we will just keep it as is for now.

What is weird about the year cut-offs is that my parents had me later in life, so we actually skip a generation in my family. Both of my parents are the beginning of the Baby Boomer generation (47) and my Brother and I are towards the start of Gen Y (81 and 84 respectively). Nobody in our family represents Gen X, but this seems to be a rather short generation anyways comparatively. Think about your relationships that cross generations; friends, lovers, family, etc. Do these differences seem apparent, or less so when you get closer in age? I see this a lot with the students that I work with, many of them were born in the late 90’s and at best they don’t get a LOT of the references I pull out sometimes. Then again, they are always teaching me the new slang like 10/10 and lit and showing me the latest memes, so we may just have common ground after all. I introduce them to things like Wayne’s World and Super Nintendo, probably not as impressive, but you know it’s what I got. I actually had a discussion about the Northridge earthquake today which was the last big one I remember and my co-worker was -4 at the time, so it was not a shared experience.

I like what that site says about what makes generations similar:

“Generations exhibit similar characteristics—such as communication, shopping, and motivation preferences—because they experienced similar trends at approximately the same life stage and through similar channels (e.g., online, TV, mobile, etc.)” (Center for Generational Kinetics, 2017).

I often think about that in terms of similarities in senses of humor, eating habits, media consumption and how I relate to my friends. But you really do have to take this into consideration with a grain of salt, you can’t just put people into boxes completely, that’s impossible. But, generational outlines are just that, outlines. Sociology is present because as humans we feel the need to organize and identify groups. That’s all it really is, a study of people in groups, and there will always be exceptions.

The rabbit hole on this one runs pretty deep, so I’ll just end it with an examination of the last two generations, since they are the ones I hang around mostly in so therefore the ones I care about most (Self-centered, I know).

Here are some of Generation Y’s (Millennial) Characteristics:

Beyond their intimate relationship with all things technological, members of Generation Y are characterized by their sense of optimism, pragmatism, and altruism. Trained since grade school to work collaboratively and creatively, this generation enjoys hands-on experiences, networking, community (human and virtual), consensus building, and praise (Jackson & Hogg, 2010).

A sample of generation Z’s (Centennial) Characteristics:

Early indications are that they are increasingly self-aware, self-reliant, innovative and goal-oriented. They also appear to be more pragmatic than their millennial predecessors… One key difference from Millennials: Most members of iGen or Gen Z don’t remember a time before social media. As a result, they tend to live much more of their entire lives—from interacting with friends and family to making major purchases—online and via their smartphones. This could have profound implications for everything from their relationships and how they learn to virtual reality training and problem-solving (Center for Generational Kinetics, 2017).

I had a hard time finding out a good source for characteristics on Z. Something to keep in mind for class next week. Anyways. I hope you enjoyed this edition of random thoughts about things in the world from a reference librarian. Maybe you can discuss generational differences more confidently at your next dinner party, or with your next tinder date, or whoever.

 

 

 

Center for Generational Kinetics. (2017, February). Generational Breakdown: Info About all of the Generations. Retrieved from: http://genhq.com/faq-info-about-generations/

Center for Generational Kinetics. (2017, February). Top 10 Gen Z Questions Answered. Retrieved from: http://genhq.com/igen-gen-z-generation-z-centennials-info/

Consumer Series: American Generations: Who They Are and How They Live (8). (2013). Amityville, US: New Strategist Press, LLC. Retrieved from http://0-www.ebrary.com.leopac.ulv.edu

Jackson, R. L. & Hogg, M. A. (2010). Generation x and generation y. In Encyclopedia of identity (Vol. 1, pp. 308-311). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412979306.n99